The Kosovo National Stadium complex is planned to be a destination point for not only the surrounding cities and urban centers but also for visitors with its proximity to the Prishtina International Airport. The site is envisioned to function on a daily basis in non-match days with a mixture of retail, cultural, sports, entertainment and hospitality facilities within an open air citypark.
The stadium is located at the very center of the site dividing the site into two main zones. The retail, auxiliary functions and main stadium parking on the east and the open air sports facilities and training fields on the west which are connected with a green belt. The linear green belt which wraps around the stadium act not only as an open air urban park where numerous activities like events, concerts, markets and fairs can take place but also as a security zone between the buildings and the stadium on match days. The main parking is pushed towards the far east edge and is connected to the stadium through a set of pedestrian corridors that ray out of the east edge of the stadium (where the main spectator entrance is) through the park and the retail zone feeding the retail during match and event days. The linear retail wraps around the park with a semi-open interior public corridor that connects the big box retail and the hotel lobby that are all at the city park level. Using the level difference of the site these low linear masses are bermed on the eastern edge creating a natural border with the large parking zone. The private rooms of the hotel and dormitories are also lifted up to float on the public zone.
The façade of the stadium is proposed to be a flexible textile veil that drapes over the bowl creating aa very soft and smooth backdrop to the natural park surrounding it. The main intention is to break down the big scale and structure of a stadium and melt it as a thin curtain between the grass and the sky. The façade lifts up gently where the main pedestrian axis meet the structure furthermore emphasizing the floating, lightweight quality of the design. The neutral and modest façade can be lit and colored during times of matches and events to become a shining spectacle with endless visual transformation potential. The flexible textile surface is not only economic, light and easy to install and maintain but also has great acoustic qualities.
The Seating Bowl
The Kosovo National Stadium is a thirty thousand (30.000) seater stadium. The design intent is to create a compact stadium seating bowl in order to optimise C-Values and prioritise an intimate and vibrant spectator experience. The stadium is designed with two seating tiers – the lower tier and the upper tier. Lower tier has eighteen (18) and upper tear has nineteen (19) rows of seats. The proposed bowl is designed along radii to allow for greater horizontal sightlines up and down the pitch. The first row of seats on the lower tier, 900mm above Field of Play (FOP) Level, is as close to the pitch as possible without encroaching on the 5m Auxiliary area, while ensuring that no seats attain a C-Value of less than 62 with the majority of the seats exceeding 90 degrees. Upper tier has a double tread height of 520mm & 540mm to optimise and spread out the C-Values vertically up the tribunes and allows a tighter bowl, while on the lower tier having a constant riser of 370mm.
The stadium facilities are as per the FIFA guidelines and therefore provide a FIFA compliant venue. The stadium is designed on four levels:
· Field of Play Level (FOP)
· Interstitial Level
· Concourse Level
· Upper Concourse Level
Field of Play Level (FOP)
The FOP Level is largely dedicated to Competitions facilities. These facilities include access to covered player’s drop-off areas and parking. From the drop-off area players and match officials have direct access to players’ dressing rooms, ablutions, coaches’ facilities and indoor warm-up areas. In addition, the competition areas provide direct access to the field of play via the players’ tunnel, facilities for referee change rooms, match commissioner offices, doping control and a players’ medical area. From the FOP Level, VIP’s have access to a covered drop-off area which provides direct access to the VIP entrance lobby, with vertical circulation to the VIP lounge on the concourse level. The FOP level includes Media and Broadcast facilities, such as the media work area, conference room and mixed zone. Pitch maintenance facilities and engineering plant-room facilities are accommodated in the Northern and Southern quadrants of the FOP level.
The interstitial level is a blind level, and provides accommodation for offices. These offices can include National Federation offices, the stadium operator offices and events organising offices.
The concourse level is the spectator’s entrance level. Spectators enter this level and move to their seats on either the lower or upper tier. A series of stairs connects the concourse to the upper concourse level.
The Kosovo National Stadium structure is simple, economic and efficient.
Supported on a series of in-situ concrete A-frames, the bowl seating is constructed with precast concrete units, minimising the need for any temporary works or formwork shuttering. This technique expedited construction on site as well as ensuring quality of finish of the exposed concrete surfaces, minimising the need for expensive finishes. The precast planks are tied together by in-situ concrete slabs at accommodation levels which act as rigid horizontal diaphragms, transferring horizontal loads to stair and elevator cores.
The roof is constructed as a lightweight steel structure in the form of a series of prefabricated steel trusses, supported at the back of the stands on the concrete A-frames. This ensures unobstructed views to all areas of the seating bowl. The trusses cantilever from the back of the stands over the seating providing support to the roof which shelters from the elements. The truss back-span provides support to an undulating facade, which lifts like a “veil” to form entrances to the stadium. The roof cover spanning between the trusses is a super-light structural fabric connecting the trusses in a seamless surface without the need of expensive secondary or tertiary structures. Again, ample use of large prefabricated components bolted on site eliminates the need for expensive temporary works reducing time and cost on site.
The surface of the roof is constantly curving with its insulating form generating efficient anticlastic geometries that are efficient structurally as well as for shedding rain water at the perimeter and providing shade to the seating, where these are more exposed to the sun.
The auxiliary facilities (retail, hotel and dormitories) in a similar fashion have an economic and efficient structure. A simple concrete structure, the lower double story zone is bermed on the eastern edge not only reducing the façade area but also providing advantages for climatizing these heavily occupied retail zones. The seating for the training fields also take advantage of the level differences of the site; and act as a part of the landscape by sitting on the natural slope without any additional structural elements.